Biliteracy and L2 Literacy Instruction Bibliography

This module provides a bibliography of research studies and analyses of biliteracy and second-language literacy in English.

Jill Kerper Mora

Ada, A.F. (1990). A Magical Encounter: Spanish-language Children’s Literature in the Classroom. Miami, FL: Santillana.
Adams, M.J. (1994). Modeling the connections between word recognition and reading. In Ruddell, R.S., Ruddell, M.R. & Singer, H. (Eds.) Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading(pp. 838-863). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Ammon, M.S. (1987). Patterns of performance among bilingual children who score low in reading. In S.R. Goldman & H.T. Trueba (Eds.), Becoming Literate in English as a Second Language. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Alderson, J. C. (1984). Reading in a foreign language: A reading problem or a language problem. In J. C. Alderson & A. H. Urquhart (Eds.), Reading in a foreign language (pp. 122-135). New York, NY: Longman.
Anastasiow, N. (1971). Oral language and learning to read. In C. Braun, (Ed.), Language, Reading and the Communication Process. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Ard, J. & Homburg, T. (1992). Verification of language transfer. In S.M. Gass & L. Selinker (Eds.), Language Transfer in Language Learning, pp. 47-70.
Au, K. H. (1998). Social constructivism and the school literacy learning of students of diverse backgrounds. Journal of Literacy Research 30 (2), p. 297-319.
August, D. & Hakuta, K. (Eds.). (1997). Improving schooling for language-minority children: A research agenda. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
August, D. & Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
Barnitz, J.G. (1985). Reading Development of Non-native Speakers of English. Language in Education: Theory and Practice Series. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
Bernhardt, E.B. (1991). Reading Development in a Second Language. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Bialystok , E., Luk, G., & Kwan, E. (2005). Bilingualism, biliteracy, and learning to read: Interactions among languages and writing systems. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9, 43-61.
 Braidi, S.M. (1999). The acquisition of second language syntax. London, England: Arnold.
Carrell, P. (1991). Second language reading: Reading ability or language proficiency.Applied Linguistics12(2), 159-179.
Carroll, J.B. (1970). The nature of the reading process. In D.E. Gunderson (Ed.),Language and Reading. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Chamot, A.U. & O’Malley, M. (1994). Instructional approaches and teaching procedures. In K. Spangenber-Urbschat & R. Pritchard (Eds.), Kids Come in All Languages: Reading Instruction for ESL Students. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Ching, D.C. (1976). Reading and the Bilingual Child. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Chomsky, N.(1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mourton & Company.
 Cisero, C.A., & Royer, J.M. (1995). The development and cross-language transfer of phonological awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology 20, 275-303.
Coady, J. (1979) A psycholinguistic model of the ESL reader. In R. Mackay, B. Barkman & R. Jordan (Eds.), Reading in a Second Language. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.
Coady, J. & Huckin, T. (1997). Second language vocabulary acquisition. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
 Corneau, L, Cormier, P., Grandmaison, E. , & Lacroix, D. (1999). A longitudinal study of phonological processing skills in children learning to read in a second language. Journal of Educational Psychology 91 (1), 29-43.
 Castantino, M. (1999, May). Reading and second language learners: Research report. Olympia, WA: The Evergreen State College. 
Crawford, L.W. (1993). Language and Literacy Learning in Multicultural Classrooms. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Cummins, J. (1994). From coercive to collaborative relations of power in the teaching of literacy. In Ferdman, B.M., Weber, R., & Ramírez, A.G. (Eds.) Literacy Across Languages and Cultures (pp. 295-331). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Cummins, J. (1999). Alternative paradigms in bilingual education research: Does theory have a place. Educational Researcher 28 (7), 26-34.
Cummins, J. (1991). Interdependence of first- and second-language proficiency in bilingual children. In E. Bialystok (Ed.). Language processing in bilingual children, p. 70-89. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cziko, G. A. (1978). Differences in first and second language reading: The use of syntactic, semantic and discourse constraints. Canadian Modern Language Review 34, 473-489.
DeFord, D.E. (1985). Validating the construct of theoretical orientation in reading instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 20 (3), 336-67. 
Droop, M., & Verhoeven, L. (2003). Language proficiency and reading ability in first- and second-language learners. Reading Research Quarterly 38 (1), 78-103. 
Duran, R.P. (1985). Discourse skills of bilingual children: Precursors of literacy. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 53, 99-114.
Durgunoglu, A.Y., & Verhoeven, L. (Eds.) (1998). Literacy development in a multilingual context: Cross-cultural perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Durgunoglu, A. Y., Nagy, R., & Hancin, M. (1993). Cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Journal of Educational Psychology 85 (3), 452-465.
    Escamilla, K. , Andrade, A.M. , Basurto, A., & Ruiz, O.A. (1996). Spanish reconstruction of An Observation Survey: A Bilingual Text. Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann.
Edelsky, C. (1982). Writing in a bilingual program: The relation of L1 and L2 texts. TESOL Quarterly 16, 211-228.
Edelsky, C. (1986). Writing in a bilingual program: Había una vez. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing. 
Eskey, D.E. (1979). A model program for teaching advanced reading to students of English as a foreign language. In R. Mackay, B. Barkman & R. Jordan (Eds.), Reading in a Second Language. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.
Feng, J., & Etheridge, G.W. (1993) Match or mismatch: The relationship between teacher’s beliefs about reading and their reading instructional practices. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. E 341 966).
Ferreiro, E., Pontecorvo, C., Moreira, N.R., & Hidalgo, I. G. (1996). Caperucita Roja aprende a escribir: Estudios psicolingüísticos comparativos en tres lenguas. Barcelona, Spain: Editorial Gedisa.
Fillmore, L.W. (1991). Second-language learning in children: A model of language learning in social context. In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language Processes in Bilingual Children. New York: Cambridge University Press. 
Fitzgerald, J. (1999). About hopes, aspirations, and uncertainty: First grade English-language learners' emergent reading. Journal of Literacy Research 31 (2), 133-182.
Fitzgerald, J. (1995). English-as-a-second-language reading instruction in the United States: A research review. Journal of Reading Behavior 27(2), 115-152.
Fitzgerald, J. (1994). Crossing boundaries: What do second-language-learning theories say to reading and writing teachers of English-as-a-second-language learners? Reading Horizons, 34 (4), 339-355.
Freeman, Y.S., & Freeman, D.E. (1997). Teaching Reading and Writing in Spanish in the Bilingual Classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. 
Freeman, Y.S., & Freeman, D.E. (1999). The California Reading Initiative: A formula for failure for bilingual students? Language Arts 76 (3), 241-248.

Gándara,P., Rumberger, R., Maxwell-Jolly, J. & Callahan, R. (2003, October 7). English Learners in California Schools: Unequal resources, unequal outcomes. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(36). Available online at

García, E.E. (1994). Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Children: Effective Instructional Practices and Related Policy Issues. In Waxman, H.C., Walker de Félix, J., Anderson, J.E., & Baptiste, H.P (Eds.) Students at Risk in At-Risk Schools: Improving Environments for Learning, pp. 65-86. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press.

Genesse, F., Lindolm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (Eds.) (2006). Educating English Language Learners: A synthesis of research evidence. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Genesse, F., Lindolm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2005). "English Language Learners in U.S. Schools: An Overview of Research." Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 10(4), 363-385.

Gernsten, R. (1996). Literacy instruction for language-minority students: The transition years. Elementary School Journal, 96 (3), 227-244.
Gernsten, R., & Woodward, J. (1995). A longitudinal study of transitional and immersion bilingual education programs in one district. The Elementary School Journal, 95 (3), 223-239.

Geva, E., Wade-Woolley, L., & Shany, M. (1997). The development of reading efficiency in first and second language. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1, 119-144.

Gibson, E. & Levin, H. (1975). The Psychology of Reading. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Goldenberg, C. (1994). Promoting early literacy development among Spanish-speaking children. In Hiebert, E.H., & Taylor, B.M. (Eds.). Getting Reading Right From the Start: Effective Early Literacy Interventions, pp. 171-199. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Gonzales, P.C. (1981) Beginning English reading for ESL studentsThe Reading Teacher. 36, 154-162.
Goodman, K.S. (1967). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing gameIn D.E. Gunderson (Ed.), Language and Reading. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics. 
González, V. (Ed.). (1999). Language and Cognitive Development in Second Language Learning. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
 Goswami, U. (1999). The relationship between phonological awareness and orthographic representation in different orthographies. In Harris, M., & Hatano, G. Learning to read and write: A cross-linguistic perspective, p. 134-156.

Greene, J. (1998). A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education, Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, the Public Policy Clinic of the Department of Government, University of Texas at Austin, and the Program on Educational Policy and Governance at Harvard University.

Gruenewald, L. J. & Pollak, S.A. (1990). Language interaction in curriculum and instruction: What classroom teachers need to know. Austin, TX: Pro-ed.
Harste, J.C. (1989). New policy guidelines for reading: Connecting research and practice. Urbana, Il: National Council of Teachers of English.
Hiebert, E.H. (1994). Becoming literate through authentic tasks: Evidence and adaptations. In Ruddell, R.S., Ruddell, M.R. & Singer, H. (Eds.) Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading (pp. 391-413). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Hollingsworth, S., & Gallego, M. (1996). Toward a collaborative praxis of multiple literacies. Curriculum Inquiry, 26 (3), 265-292.
Hornberger, N.H. (1994) Continua of biliteracy. In Ferdman, B.M., Weber, R., & Ramirez, A.G.(Eds.) Literacy Across Languages and Cultures (pp. 103-139). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Hudelson, S. (1984). Kan yu ret an rayt en ingles: Children become literate in English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly 18, 221-238. 
Hudelson, S. And Serna, I.A. (1994). Beginning literacy in a whole language bilingual program. In Flurkey, A.S. & Meyer, R.J. Under the whole language umbrella (pp. 278-294). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Hurley, S.R., & Tinajero, J.V., (Eds.) 2001. Literacy assessment of second-language learners. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
International Reading Association (1997, January). The role of phonics in reading instruction: A position statement. Reading Online [On-line] January. Available:
Jiménez, R.T., García, G.E., & Pearson, P.D. (1996). The reading strategies of bilingual Latina/o students who are successful English readers: Opportunities and obstacles. Reading Research Quarterly, 33 (1), 90-112.
 Jiménez, R.T., Moll, L.C., Rodríguez-Brown, F.V., & Barrera, R.B. (1999). Latina and Latino researchers interact on issues related to literacy learning. Reading Research Quarterly 34 (2), 217-230.
Jones, E.B. (1998). Mexican American teachers as cultural mediators: Literacy and literacy contexts through bicultural strategies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Claremont Graduate University and San Diego State University. 
Kaminsky, S. (1976). Bilingualism and learning to read. In A. Simoes (Ed.), The Bilingual Child. New York: Academic Press.
Karna, H.T., & Lara, M. (1992). The support factor as empowerment and teachers’ perceptions of bilingual programs. Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students 11, 187-206.
 Koda, K. (2005). Insights into second language readingA cross-linguistic approach. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Koda, K. (1997). Orthographic knowledge in L2 lexical processing: A cross-linguistic perspective. In Coady, J. & T. Huckin (Eds.). Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 35-52). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Koda, K. & Zehler, A. (Eds.). (2008). Learning to read across languages: Cross-linguistic relationships in first- and second-language literacy development. New York: Routledge.

Krashen, S. & McField, G. (2006). What works? Reviewing the latest evidence on bilingual education. Language Learner 1(2): 7-10, 34.

Langer, J.A., Bartolome, L., Vásquez, O., & Lucas, T. (1990). Meaning construction in school literacy tasks: A study of bilingual students. American Educational Research Journal 17, 427-471.
 Lapp, D., & Flood, J. (1992). Teaching reading to students who are learning English. Every Child A Reader. New York, NY: Macmillan, pp. 582-629.
Lee, J., & Schallert, D.L. (1997). The relative contribution of L2 language proficiency and L1 reading ability to L2 reading performance. TESOL Quarterly 31 (4), pp. 713-739.
Legarreta-Marcaida, D. (1981). Effective use of the primary language in the classroom. In California State Department of Education. School and Language Minority Students (pp. 83-116). Los Angeles, CA: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center.
Lemberger, N. (1996). Factors affecting language development from the perspectives of four bilingual teachers. Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 18, 17-34.
Levande, D.I. (1989). Theoretical orientation to reading and classroom practice. Reading Improvement 26, (3), 254-65.
Lindholm, K. J. (1991). Theoretical assumptions and empirical evidence for academic achievement in two languages. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 13, 3-17.
Lucas, M., & Singer, H. (1976). Dialect in relation to oral reading achievement. In H. Singer & R. Ruddell (Eds.), Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Mackay, R. (1979). Teaching the information-gathering skills. In R. Mackay, B. Barkman & R. Jordan (Eds.), Reading in a Second Language. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.
Mahoney, J., & Archwamety, T (1996). Significant predictors of the use of whole language in elementary schools. Reading Improvement 33 (2), 103-110.
McKay, S. (1993). Agendas for second language literacy. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
McLaughlin, B. (1987). Reading in a second language: Studies with adult and child learners. In S.R. Goldman & H.T. Trueba (Eds.), Becoming Literate in English as a Second Language. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Meyerson, M.J., & VanVactor, J. (1992). The reading theoretical orientation of teachers who instruct special needs students. Reading Psychology 13 (3), 201-215.
Milk, R., Mercado, C., & Sapiens, A. (1992) Re-thinking the education of teachers of language minority children: Developing reflective teachers for changing schools. NCBE Focus: Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education, 6. Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.
Mitchell, R., & Myles, F. (1998). Second language learning theories. London, England: Arnold.
Miramontes, O.B. (1990). A comparative study of English oral reading skills in differently schooled groups of Hispanic students. Journal of Reading Behavior 22 (4), 373-394.
Miramontes, O.B., Nadeau, A., & Commins, N.L. (1997) Restructuring Schools for Linguistic Diversity. New York: Teachers College Press.
Modiano, N. (1971). Juanito’s reading problems: Foreign language interference and reading skill acquisition. In J. Laffey & R. Shuy (Eds.), Language Differences: Do they interfere?Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Moll, L.C. (1994). Literacy research in community and classrooms: A sociocultural approach. In Ruddell, R.S., Ruddell, M.R., & Singer, H. (Eds.), Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading (pp.179-207). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Mora, J.K., (2009). From the ballot box to the classroom. Educational Leadership 66 (7), 14-19.

Mora, J.K. (2008). Bilingual teacher licensure. In J. González (Ed.). Encyclopedia of bilingual education, Vol. 1 (p. 95-100), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Mora, J.K. (2008). Teacher qualifications. In J. González (Ed.). Encyclopedia of bilingual education, Vol. 2 (p. 816-821), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

 Mora, J.K. (2006). Differentiating instruction for English Learners: The Four-by-Four Model. In T.A. Young & N. L. Hadaway (Eds.). Supporting the Literacy Development of English Learners: Increasing Success in All Classrooms. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, pp. 24-40.

Mora, J.K. (2001a). Effective instructional practices and assessment for literacy and biliteracy development. In S. R. Hurley & J.V. Tinajero (Eds.) Literacy Assessment of Second Language Learners (pp. 149-166). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Mora, J.K. (2001b). Learning to spell in two languages: Orthographic transfer in a transitional Spanish/English bilingual program. In P. Dreyer (Ed.), Raising Scores, Raising Questions: Claremont Reading Conference 65th Yearbook, 64-84. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate University.
 Mora, J.K. & Grisham, D.L (2001) !What deliches tortillas! Preparing teachers for literacy instruction in linguistically diverse classrooms. Teacher Education Quarterly28 (4), 51-70.
Muñiz-Swicegood, M. (1994). The effects of metacognitive reading strategy training on the reading performance and student reading analysis strategies of third grade bilingual students. Bilingual Research Journal 18 (1 & 2), 83-97.
Nurss, J.R. & Hough, R.A. (1992). Reading and the ESL student. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What Research Has to Say About Reading Instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
O’Brien, C. (1973). Teaching the Language-Different Child to Read. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing.
Odlin, T. (1989). Language transfer: Cross-linguistic influence in language learning. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 
Padrón, Y.N. (1990). Examining the cognitive reading strategies used by Hispanic elementary students while reading Spanish text. In L.M. Malave (Ed.), NABE Annual Conference Journal. Washington, D.C.: National Association for Bilingual Education.
 Padrón, Y.N. (1992). The effect of strategy instruction on bilingual student's cognitive strategy use in reading. Bilingual Research Journal16 (3 & 4), 35-61.
Peregoy, S. F. , & Boyle, O.F. (1997). Reading, writing and learning in ESL. New York: Longman.
Pérez, B. & Torres-Guzmán, M.E. (1996). Learning in two worlds. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Reyes, M. L. (1992). Challenging venerable assumptions: Literacy instruction for linguistically different students. Harvard Educational Review, 62, 427-446.
Reyes, M. L, & Halcón, J.J. (Eds.) (2001). The best for our children: Critical perspectives on literacy for Latino students. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. 
Roberts, C.A. (1994). Transferring literacy skills from L1 to L2: From theory to practice. Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 13, 209-221.
Rodríguez-Castellano, J., & Rodríguez-Castellano, L. (1965). Spanish Phonological Patterns. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Rolstad, K., Mahoney, K., & Glass, G.V. (2005). The Big Picture: A Meta-Analysis of Program Effectiveness Research on English Language Learners. Educational Policy, Vol. 19(4), 572-594.

Ruddell, R.E. (1979). Psycholinguistic implications for a systems of communications model. In H. Singer & R. Ruddell (Eds.), Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 
Rueda, R. & García, E. (1996). Teachers perspectives on literacy assessment and instruction with language-minority students: A comparative study. Elementary School Journal, 96 (3), 311-332.
Rumelhart, D.E. (1977). Toward an interactive model of reading. In S. Dornic (Ed.), Attention and Performance (Vol. 6, pp. 573-603). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Saunders, W., O’Brien, G., Lennon, D., & McLean, J. (1996). Making the transition to English literacy successful. In R. Gersten and R. Jiménez, (Eds.). Effective strategies for teaching language minority students. Monterey, CA: Brooks Cole.
Schifini, A. (1994). Language, literacy and content instruction: Strategies for teachers. In K. Spangenber-Urbschat & R. Pritchard (Eds.), Kids Come in All Languages: Reading Instruction for ESL Students. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Shin, F. H., & Krashen, S. (1996). Teacher attitudes toward the principles of bilingual education and toward students’ participation in bilingual programs: Same or different? The Bilingual Research Journal 20 (1), 45-53.
 Signorini, A. (1997). Word reading in Spanish: A comparison between skilled and less skilled beginning readers. Applied Psycholinguistics 18, 319-344.

Slavin, R., & Cheung, A. (2005). A synthesis of research on language of reading instruction for English language learners.  Review of Educational Research, 75 (2), 247-284.

Snow, C. E. (1992). Perspectives on second-language development: Implications for bilingual education. Educational Researcher 21 (2), 16-19. 
Smith, F. (1971). Understanding Reading. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Stahl, S.A., & Miller, P.D. (1989). Whole language and language experience approaches for beginning reading: A quantitative research synthesis. Review of Educational Research 59 (1), 87-116. 
Swan, M. & Smith, B. (1987). Learner English. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 
Terrell, T.D. & Salgués de Cargill, M. (1979). Lingüística Aplicada. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Tharp, R.G., & Gallimore, R. (1988). Rousing minds to life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Thonis, E. (1983). The English-Spanish Connection. Compton, CA: Santillana.
Thonis, E.W. (1976). Literacy for America’s Spanish-Speaking Children. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Tinajero, J.V., & Ada, A.F. (1993). The Power of Two languages: Literacy and Biliteracy for Spanish Speaking Students. New York: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill.
Tinajero, J.V., Hurley, S.R., & Varela Lozano, E. (1998). Developing language and literacy in bilingual classrooms. In Gonzalez, A. L., Huerta-Macias, A. ,& Tinajero, J.V. Educating Latino students: A guide to successful practice.  Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publications.
Urzua, C. (1987). "You stopped too soon": Second language children composing and revising. TESOL Quarterly 21 (2), 279-298. 
Vacca, J.L., Vacca, R.T., & Gove, M.K. (1987). Reading and Learning to Read. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co.

Verhoeven, L. (1994). Transfer in bilingual development: The linguistic interdependency hypothesis revisited. Language Learning, 44, 381-415.

Wallace, C. (1986). Learning to read in a multicultural society. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press.

Wang, M., & Koda, K. (2005). Commonalities and differences in word identification skills among English second language learners. Language Learning, 55, 73-100.

Wardhaugh, R. (1969). Reading: A Linguistic Perspective. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Wiley, T.G. (1996). Literacy and Language Diversity in the United States. McHenry, Il: Center for Applied Linguistics & Delta Systems.
Williams, J.D. & Snipper, G.C. (1990). Literacy and Bilingualism. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Zuckernick, H. (1996). Second language word decoding strategies. The Canadian Modern Language Journal 53, 76-96.
Zúñiga-Hill, C. & Yopp, R.H. (1996). Practices of exemplary elementary school teachers of second language learners. Teacher Education Quarterly 23 (1), 83-97.